Purification of water refers to the removal of unwanted impurities from water to make it healthy and drinkable. The impurities include chemicals removed either from factories or household waste, solid waste, harmful gases, and various other biological contaminants.
Mainly, water purification is performed to get clean water for drinking purposes. But there are many other purposes for which water purification is carried out. For example, pure water is required in pharmacies, laboratories, chemical industries, and agricultural purposes.
The human body consists of about 60% of water. Our heart, brain, lungs, and even the bones comprise of water. Water is the most crucial part of our lives.
Why do we need to purify water?
Water purification helps us in the following ways:
- It reduces the elevated levels of chlorine in the water that can be extremely harmful.
- It improves the taste of drinking water.
- It lowers the levels of bacteria and other harmful microscopic objects.
- It reduces the risk of medical complications and ensures a healthy society.
- It makes your skin glow and saves it from allergies.
Methods of water purification
Water purification can be carried out by simple methods at home or in laboratories using specialized equipment on a larger scale.
Following methods show the complete details of methods that are used to purify water for daily uses.
1. Treating water with chemicals
Water is purified by treating it with certain special chemicals that either kill the bacteria or remove the impurities completely from the water. The chemical treatment is carried out in a properly managed way to avoid any damage through the chemicals. Three types of chemicals are usually used in this method
Disinfectant tablets are available in the market that kills the bacteria when kept in water for some time
Bleach in a small amount helps in the removal of chlorine from water
Iodine can also help in the removal of bacteria.
2. Filtering out contaminants
The second method is the filtration of the contaminants from water. In this method, impurities are removed by passing water through special types of filters, and the pure water passes down into the container, and the impurities remain at the top. Four types of filters are commonly used in this procedure
Commercial filters that are easily available in the market
Pine tree leaves serve as good filtration tools
Cilantro for the removal of heavy materials from water
Passing the water through clay pots to make it free from bacteria
Use of commercial water filters
Large filter types of machinery are used on commercial levels for the purification of water. They have specialized filters fitted inside them to remove all the unwanted particles from the water and make it healthy and clean.
Use of pine trees
When you place the stem of a pine tree after removing its leaves in the beaker of water, the sap inside the stem traps the pathogens from The following, and the water is purified.
Use of cilantro
Take water in a beaker or a pot
Add some leaves of the cilantro plant into the water and stir it thoroughly
Leave this for a few hours and then remove the leaves from the water before drinking it
Use of clay pots
Water is passed through clay or ceramic pots to purify it. Clay and ceramic are very good filters for bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens because they are porous and allow water to pass through them, but they trap these pathogens and hence purify the water.
3. Heating the pathogens to kill them
Pathogens, especially bacteria can survive a certain limit of temperature. Hence the method of heating through artificial or natural sources of heat makes the bacteria inactive and ensures the purity of water. This heating is done in three different ways
Boiling the water
Distillation of water
Through solar disinfectants
Boiling the water
Boiling involves increasing the temperature of the water so high that it kills the bacteria and makes the water clean. Boiling water is a good way to purify water but it is not that much use as many particles still remain in the water.
Distilling with sunlight
Distillation is the procedure in which water is first boiled, and then the steam is recondensed to get pure water. This can be carried at home by yourself and also can be carried out in distillation plants on a commercial scale. Sunlight can be used as a source of heat for this.
Use of solar water disinfectant
SODIS can be used for purification and this is a highly effective method if carried out properly.
Take water in a clean plastic bottle.
Twist the lid and place the bottle in the sunlight with one of its sides facing the sun
Leave it for a few hours, and it kills the harmful bacteria and other pathogens very efficiently.
4. Removing larger particles
The larger particles can be removed by simple methods Three common methods can be used to remove these particles.
Straining through a piece of cloth
Making a filter by hand for yourself
Straining the water
Take a piece of clean cheesecloth or a cotton shirt. A fine mesh strainer or a clean dish towel will also work in other cases.
Take a bowl and place the strainer over it.
Pass the water through the strainer of the cloth, and you will see pure water coming down.
This method can only remove larger impurities and not the microscopic ones and neither the heavy metals.
Making a filter yourself
Take an empty bottle, cut it from the bottom and cover it with a piece of the coffee filter
Tie the coffee filter on the head of the bottle where the cap is supposed to be placed with the help of a simple rubber band
Put this bottle inverted on the mouth of an empty beaker
Now add impure water from the container to the cut part of the bottle
The water-free from sediments comes into the beaker
You can also use a bark curled into a cone in place of a bottle and cap and a piece of cotton shirt in replacement of the coffee filter
If you don’t have access to any of the above-mentioned materials or method of purification, then you can remove the sediments by leaving the water in a jar for some time.
When you leave the water for some time, the heavier particles sit down and sink in the bottom line of the jar.
The lighter particles come on the top of the surface of the water.
The lighter particles can be removed by the help of skimming, whereas the heavier particles that have settled down can be removed by shifting the water into a clean bowl carefully.
Water is the most important part of our lives. In order to make our bodies healthy and remain fresh, we need to have clean and pure water. Hence, we can get pure and clean water by using any of these methods. Use the best method to get your clean water!